On the Possibility of Other Civilizations in Our Galaxy

In this essay Someone called Soter examines the Drake Equation which asks how many technically advanced civilizations exist in our galaxy.

He also looks at the Fermi Paradox which questions why, if there are other technological civilizations nearby, we haven’t heard from them.

If civilizations exist in our galaxy with level of technology at least equal to our own, we might be able to detect some of them using radio telescopes.

And if civilizations exist with technologies far in advance of our own we might expect them to have colonized millions of habitable worlds in the Milky Way, and even to have visited our own planet.

Yet there is no evidence in the astronomical geological archaeological, or historical records that extraterrestrial civilizations exist or that visitors from other worlds have ever been to Earth.

Does that means as some have concluded that ours is the only civilizations in the galaxy ?

or could there be a natural self regulations mechanism that limits the intensive colonizations of other worlds ?

In 1961 radio astronomer Frand Drake devised an equation to express how the hypothetical number of observable civilizations in our galaxy should depend on a wide range of astronomical and biological factors, such as the number of habitable planets per star, and the fraction of inhabited worlds that give rise to intelligent life.

The Drak Equation has led to serious studies and encouraged the search for extraterrestrial intelligence .

It has also provoked ridicule and hostility .

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Modern Literary Theory

A literary movement that started in the late 1920s and 1930s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text with the biography or psychology of the author or thworks relationshop to literarry history

New criticism proposed tat a work of literary art should be regarded as autonomous and so beyond itself

A poem consists less of a series of referential and verifiable statements about the real world beyond it than of the presentations and sophisticated organizations of a set of complex experiences .

Definition of The New Criticism

The New Criticism is a type of formalist literary criticism that reached its height during 1940s and 1950s and that received its name form John Crawe Ransom ‘s book The New Criticism.

New critics treat a work f literature as if it were a self contained , self referential object.

Rather than basing their interpretations of a text on the readers response the authors stated intentions or parallels between the text and historical contexts such as authors life.

New Critics perform a close reading concentrating on the relationships within the text that give it its own distinctive  character or form. New critics emphasize that the structure of a work should not be divorced from meaning, viewing the two as constituting a quasi organic unity.

Special attention is paid to repetition, particularly of images or symbols but also of sound effects and rhytms in poetry.

New Critics especially appreciate the use of literary devices  such as irony to achieve a balance or reconciliation between dissimilar even conflicting, elements in a text.

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