On the Possibility of Other Civilizations in Our Galaxy

In this essay Someone called Soter examines the Drake Equation which asks how many technically advanced civilizations exist in our galaxy.

He also looks at the Fermi Paradox which questions why, if there are other technological civilizations nearby, we haven’t heard from them.

If civilizations exist in our galaxy with level of technology at least equal to our own, we might be able to detect some of them using radio telescopes.

And if civilizations exist with technologies far in advance of our own we might expect them to have colonized millions of habitable worlds in the Milky Way, and even to have visited our own planet.

Yet there is no evidence in the astronomical geological archaeological, or historical records that extraterrestrial civilizations exist or that visitors from other worlds have ever been to Earth.

Does that means as some have concluded that ours is the only civilizations in the galaxy ?

or could there be a natural self regulations mechanism that limits the intensive colonizations of other worlds ?

In 1961 radio astronomer Frand Drake devised an equation to express how the hypothetical number of observable civilizations in our galaxy should depend on a wide range of astronomical and biological factors, such as the number of habitable planets per star, and the fraction of inhabited worlds that give rise to intelligent life.

The Drak Equation has led to serious studies and encouraged the search for extraterrestrial intelligence .

It has also provoked ridicule and hostility .

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Introduction


What is Drama?

Drama is a type literature usually written to be performed.

people often make a distinction between drama, which concerns the written text, or script for the performance, and theatre which concerns the performance of this script.

Many of the most honored and influential works of literature around the world have been dramas.

They begin with the classical Greek tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Eripides and continue with the plays of such major dramatists as William Shakespeare in England Moliere in France Johann Wolfgang in Germany.

Characterstics of Drama

Most types of literature including novels, short stories and poems are written to be read, usually in silence by a solitary reader.

Although works of drama called plays are also read in this manner , they are created primarily to be presented in public by a group of performers, each of whome pretended to be one of the characters in the story the play is telling .

Older plays, such as those written by the Greeks or Shakespeare, consist almost etirely of the words spoken by theese characters .

More recent plays usually contains nonspoken material that tells the actors when to enter or leave the performance space gives suggestions about how to speak their dialogue , and describe their cosumes or their physical surroundings on stage .

The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle who laid the foundations for the critical study of drama, divided the elements of drama into plot character , thought language and spectacle.

Aristotle considered plot the basic story and how it is told the most important of these, and this is indeed typically the case

However almost all dramas use all of these elements to some extent , telling a story by means of the interactions of characters, who express their thoughts through language within a particular visual setting .

The balance of these elements, however, varies from play to play.

During some periods and in some traditions many or most plays emphasize some element other than plot .

Numerous plays emphasize a particular character or relationship between characters, as does Shakespearre’s Hamlet.

Such plays are especially poplar because audiences have always been interested in seeing their favourite actors interpret such demanding rules.

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Modern Literary Theory

A literary movement that started in the late 1920s and 1930s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text with the biography or psychology of the author or thworks relationshop to literarry history

New criticism proposed tat a work of literary art should be regarded as autonomous and so beyond itself

A poem consists less of a series of referential and verifiable statements about the real world beyond it than of the presentations and sophisticated organizations of a set of complex experiences .

Definition of The New Criticism

The New Criticism is a type of formalist literary criticism that reached its height during 1940s and 1950s and that received its name form John Crawe Ransom ’s book The New Criticism.

New critics treat a work f literature as if it were a self contained , self referential object.

Rather than basing their interpretations of a text on the readers response the authors stated intentions or parallels between the text and historical contexts such as authors life.

New Critics perform a close reading concentrating on the relationships within the text that give it its own distinctive  character or form. New critics emphasize that the structure of a work should not be divorced from meaning, viewing the two as constituting a quasi organic unity.

Special attention is paid to repetition, particularly of images or symbols but also of sound effects and rhytms in poetry.

New Critics especially appreciate the use of literary devices  such as irony to achieve a balance or reconciliation between dissimilar even conflicting, elements in a text.

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Jude the Obscure

Thomas Hardy’s last novel, Jude the Obscure , is undoubtedly his most thought provoking work, a fact which corresponds with the seriousness and depth with which Hardy explores and gropes with the very foundation and framework of human life in a world that insists on playing a heavy handed, and to great extent destructive, role in the manipulation of the individual’s destiny.

What aggravates the dilemma of human life in Jude the obscure is that Hardy substitutes  a turbulent and disconnected setting for his traditionally stable agriculture and rural one.

This change has a profound effect on the psychology of the characters of the novel.

Richard Carpenter refers to this new atmosphere which penetrates in to the felling of the characters when he states that in Jude the Obscure.

Hardy turns away from agricultural setting and pastoral myth to restless world of  cities and psychological insecurities.

The sense of psychological insecurity which the major characters suffer takes deeper roots due to the fact that customs and conventions sanctioned by society are being questioned and even challenged by these characters.

In the study of Thomas Hardy, Lawrence indicates that the characters of Hardy’s novel are shown to be struggling hard to come into being.

Lawrence’s statement applies perfectly well to the major characters of Jude the obscure, and this in turn makes meaningful their questioning and challenging of the norms of their society.

In other words These characters in their attempt to come to themselves, find out that they are hampered by fixed social norms, which they try to fight off.

The peculiar strength of this struggle makes them the most unconventional of all Hardy`s characters, and explains why Hardy once intended to call this novel the Recalcitrant s .

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Eleonora

Iam come for a race noted for vigour of fancy and ardour or passion.

Men have called me mad, but the question is not yet settled whether madness is or is not the loftiest intelligence, whether much that is glorious, whether all that is profound, does not spring from disease of thought, from moods of mind exalted at the expense of the general intellect. They who dream by day are cognisant of many things which escape those who dream only by night.

In their grey visions they obtain glimpses of eternity, and thrill, in waking, to find that they have been upon the verge of the great secret.

In Snatches they learn something of the wisdom which is of good , and more of the mere knowledge which is of evil.

They penetrate, however rudderless or compass less,  into the vast ocean of the “night ineffable” and again, like the adventures of the Nubian geographer, aggressi sunt mare tenebrarum, quid in eo esset exploraturi.

We will say, then that i am mad.

I grant, at the least, that there are to distinct conditions of my mental existence, the condition of a lucid reason not to be disputed, and belonging to the memory of events forming he first epoch of my life, and a condition of shadow and doubt, appertaining to the present, and to the recollection of wht constitutes the second great era of my being.

Therefore, what i shall tell of the earlier period, believe; and to what i may relate of the later time give only such credit as may seem due; or doubt it altogether ; or if dout it ye cannot the play unto its riddle the dipus.

She whom i loved in youth, and of whom i know pen calmly and distinctly these remembrances, was the sole daughter of the only sister of my mother long depated.

Eleonora of the name of my cousin. We had always dwelt together, beneath a tropical sun, i the valley of the Many coloured Grass,

No unguided footstep ever came upon that vale, for it lay far away up among a range of giant hills that hung beetling around about it, shutting out the sunlight from its sweetest recesses.

No path was trodden it its vicinity; and to reach our happy home there was need of putting back with force the foliage of many thousands of forest trees, and of crushing to death the glories of many millions of fragrant flowers.

Thus that we lived all alone, knowing nothing of the world without the vally , i and my cousin, and her mother.

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Successful SEO for your website

Many of you over here are for sure trying to get your hands on tips for successful SEO for your website, in layman terms getting top rankings on Search Engines.

The most important target for Search Engine Optimizers and webmasters has been Google.

This legendary search engine since its inception has grown to a mammoth size from a small company to a Multi National Giant with facilities world wide now.

It’s by far the most used search engine available today.

Though official statistics show that Yahoo and MSN do hold a big share of the search market, but that’s still has a long way to compete with Google.

Google has been always trying to get relevant content to it’s users, so the most important tips to get your site visible in Google is content and that too I repeat relevant content.

You often may come across pages over the Internet, with long promotional information and nothing but text, text and text filled in the websites who are trying to sell you a package for $49 only.

Long time ago, I use to bypass this information, and scroll straight to the bottom, wondering why this guy has put so up much text, does he think any sane person will be reading all this?

Many of you would have the obvious answer that they are trying to lure the search engines to put you on top, but for those who don’t, it’s correct, they are trying to fill in the text not always for you, but for the search engines to read it as well.

So, shall we do the same, well it depends on you choice.

You have to ask these questions to yourself.

What is your primary goal?

a) Get top listings on top of search engines, no matter what your visitors feel about your website?
b) Put search engine rankings as secondary and create a site fully loaded with graphics and content to get your visitors remain hooked.
c) To get the best of both worlds.

Many of you would think, that the guy is talking completely off beat, how can you get the best of both the worlds.

The answer is by adding more pages, serving as much information to your visitors and content hungry search engines as possible.

In this way you would be serving the online community by giving them as much relevant information as possible by getting blogs, articles, links, news, directory, related to your business field on your website.

You may create small and tiny links and sub-domains for these additional services at the bottom of your website pages and mention them in your Sitemap, for sure you would be submitting the sitemap in Google, and insure that it lies on a fairly visible corner of your homepage.

Next thing, would be to invite as many as visitors as possible to visit your homepage, as well as free pages to advertise their business, or share their views on your blogs, articles, and forums which you have created with much efforts.

This would definitely give your company an advertising leverage and a reputation for potential buyers who would consider you as a stable and large business.

Now, since your services are free, you would get more of these automatic links and offline referrals, which would again serve you well as advertisement for your business as well as inbound links coming to your website from various sources, without you actually doing any work on it.

Hey, did I mention that Link Building and relevant links pointing to your websites is one of the most important factor for getting top listings on Google and a superior page rank for your website?

So, keep working on it, and if you think that you like the idea and want to see a site with a working model, do visit http://www.webdesigningcompany.net/articles.php

I bet you would think twice before switching over to any other website for information on website design and promotion.

Wish you best of luck.

About the Author:

The author is Business Head for The Web Design Company, and is into web-design, development and Search Engine optimization.

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Essential Questions to Ask Before Hiring a Web Designer

If you only ask a prospective web design company five questions, here they are.

1. Can I see some examples of your work completed on a similar budget and scope? Seeing a designer’s portfolio is usually the first and most obvious method to evaluate their design capabilities. But, take it one step further by asking to see projects with a similar budget and scope of work. This should provide you with a clear expectation of what you’ll get for your money. If you want to go even further than just looking at the designer’s portfolio, ask for two references that you can contact. Once you have the references in hand, give them a call and ask a few questions about the designer: * What goals did you have for your website? * To what extent did the designer’s work accommodate those goals? * How easy is the designer to work with? * Was the project completed on time and within budget?

2. What will be delivered? When can I expect it? What will it cost? Ideally you want to look for a design company that will turn over the complete design and code upon completion, finish your project on-time and within your budget. Communicate your expectations for each of these and see if the company agrees to meet your expectations. It is important to determine whether the project has a fixed price or billed hourly. In most cases, a fixed price is preferred because it sets your payment expectation and motivates the design team to complete the job quickly.

3. How will the site be managed? It’s easy to get caught up in the web design process and forget to address the long-term management of the site. The last thing that you want is for your site to be designed and launched and then not know how to manage or update it. Save yourself the hassle and ask how the site will be managed before signing. You need to determine if there is any software that you will need to manage the site. Furthermore you may also need the designer to provide some level of training on how to manage and update the site when needed.

4. Can you explain some of the technologies that you plan to use for the web design? The technologies used for developing a website are important, but even more important than the answer itself is how the agency answers your question. Did the designer talk in a language that you understand? If they use a large amount of technical jargon that is hard for you to follow, this may predict poor communication throughout your project. Effective communication during the design project is critical to getting a final product that meets or exceeds your expectations. Take care to choose a designer can explain their work in a way that you understand.

5. Do you have any questions for me? Possibly the most important question that you can ask a web designer is if they have any questions for you. This puts the ball in the designer’s court and allows you to see what their approach to the project is. Any designer worth hiring should at least ask a few clarifying questions (the more, the better). More specifically, you should expect a designer to have at least a few questions that focus on the business goals for the site, the website requirements and how the success of the site will be measured. Hiring a designer that doesn’t have a solid grasp on your expectations is a recipe for web design disaster. If they don’t know what you want and need then you aren’t going to get it.

About the Author:

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Spread Your Knowledge Around

I see it all the time: there are those people out there who have been working in a particular industry for years. They’re wonderful at what they do, and they have a lot of knowledge from all of that time being dedicated to their field. But if you ask them about it, they’ll just brush it aside, saying they’re nothing special. The reason? Because to them all of the things they know seem commonplace. They’ve been working so closely with it for so long they forget that everyone doesn’t know this stuff as well, and so they don’t take advantage of chances to spread their knowledge around, and improve their image at the same time.

Have you ever thought about writing an article for a magazine? I’m sure your industry has plenty of magazines that are going to be filled with articles written by people who are just like you. With all the experience you have there is going to be a lot of possibilities for things to talk about. The reason why this works so well is because people like to read about these different things. They like to know what a person has learned, and they like to gain a better insight into an industry. It isn’t just people in the industry who pick up those kinds of magazines. Many people take interest in what goes on in the places they do business with, and like to keep on top of things. This leads to a more interesting way to take advantage of a person’s desire for knowledge, and put it to good use with something like calendar printing.

What you do is have each month dedicated to a different subject within your industry. Write out a mini article dealing with what you know, and give them a list of different places they can go to learn more on the subject. Now, a catalog like this obviously isn’t going to be for everyone, which means you’ll have to take the time to find out specific people or a set market you can spread them around in. Establishing yourself first through writing actual magazine articles will be the best way to get the most from your calendar printing as well. Once your name is known you have that as your chief draw to make people interested in getting those calendars. There are other ways to capitalize on this as well, such as writing booklets or finding a different method for spreading your knowledge.

My goal is to get you thinking about the possibilities. This is a strong way of getting your name to your customers and helping to improve your image. If you’ve been in your industry for any length of time I’m sure you’ve built up some solid experience. Put that experience to good use for your marketing.

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Enhance The Online Performance Of Your Website

One of the key factors that influences the success of your website on the World Wide Web is the performance of your web pages. All it requires is to make some tweaks at your end and you can make your web pages perform well. The front end performance is a crucial area where you can work on to improvise the website performance. Front end includes your HTML, CSS, JavaScript and images on the website that can be accessed easily. Here are some tips to speed up your web pages and make them perform better.

Identify Heavy Components

Large images or components have huge file sizes that makes the web page heavy and further increases its page loading time. As a result, the website takes a long time to load and get displayed on the user screen. Thus it is important to identify these heavy components and optimize them accordingly. Profile your web pages and key in on unduly heavy components that can either be done away with completely or can be optimized to suit your requirements. It will help you analyze its size and how long it takes to load. Ideally, you should aim to restrict page components under 25 KB.

Use Appropriate Image Formats

The best way to optimize images is to store them properly. Some of the most common file formats to save images are JPEG, GIF and PNG. JPG – It is used to save realistic photographs that have multiples shades of colors and smooth gradients. GIF and PNG – They are used for images, primarily graphics that have solid colors. Though both of them are quite similar. PNG produces a relatively lower file size.

Compress CSS and JavaScript Documents

Compressing CSS and JavaScript documents involves removal of unnecessary characters like tabs, spaces, comments etc. from the source code in order to reduce the file size. There are a number of free tools available on the Internet that help to reformat your code and compress the CSS and JavaScript documents. However, do make sure that you are using good quality online applications that also give you the ability to reverse the formatting through the development process.

Merge CSS and JavaScript Files

By combining the CSS and JavaScript files, you can reduce the number of HTTP requests to the server. This is because an individual HTTP request is created to the server for all the components required to render a web page. Therefore, for each CSS file that you have, a separate HTTP gets requests for the web page. When you combine all the files, only one HTTP request is required to generate a web page.

Use CSS Sprites

CSS Sprites are combinations of smaller images into one big image. For this image to be displayed correctly, you need to adjust the background position CSS attribute. This is a great way to reduce HTTP requests by compiling several images and bulking them together as one. This way the HTTP requests are reduced and the web pages are able to load faster. Though you can do this manually, there are also several web based tools that offers the option to upload images to be combined into one single CSS sprite and then delivers the CSS code to render the images.

About the Author:

Kabir Bedi is a Indian web designer who works as a senior web consultant with LeXolution IT Services. The company is an industry leader in Outsource website maintenance services and he contributes his in depth knowledge about the web industry in order to formulate effective web solutions for clients.

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Types of Press Releases

Press releases are often lumped together as one single tool in PR writing or publicity. However, there are many different types of press releases, all with their own rules, formats, and other subtle differences in how they convey a message to members of the media. Some examples of types of press releases include general news releases, launch releases, product press releases, executive / staff announcement news releases, expert positioning press releases, and event releases. Here’s more on those six types of press releases:

General News Releases – General press releases are what most people think of when they think of press releases. A general press release simply includes news that needs to be disseminated to members of the media in the hopes of media coverage and exposure. For example, a general news release might be used if a company runs a contest, wins an award, or has some other general news about the company, organization, person, or website.